Artículos sobre Investigación homeopática

NEW PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF WATER INDUCED BY MECHANICAL TREATMENTS A calorimetric study at 25°C

V. Elia* and M. Niccoli Department of Chemistry, University Federico II of Naples, via Mezzocannone, 4 – 80134 Naples Italy

Abstract: A novel property of DNA is described: the capacity of some bacterial DNA sequences to induce electromagnetic waves at high aqueous dilutions. It appears to be a resonance phenomenon triggered by the ambient electromagnetic background of very low frequency waves. The genomic DNA of most pathogenic bacteria contains sequences which are able to generate such signals. This opens the way to the development of highly sensitive detection system for chronic bacterial infections in human and animal diseases. Key words: DNA, electromagnetic signals, bacteria.

Introduction: We can notice a great, increasing interest towards the therapeutic effects of the remedies used by the homeopathic medicine, and that induced us to begin a physicochemical study on the very object of this alternative medicine, namely the ‘extremely diluted solutions’. Those solutions have the same composition of the solvent used, thus it is very difficult to understand how they can work as remedies. Such ‘extremely diluted solutions’ are usually prepared through the technique proposed by Hahnemann [1], which essentially implies the iteration of two processes: dilution and succussion. The iteration of these two processes yields the ‘extremely diluted solutions’ used by the homeopathic medicine. Each dilution step is called ‘centesimal hannemanian’, CH in short: a 1 CH solution underwent one 1:100 dilution and succussion, a 2 CH solution underwent two steps of 1:100 dilution and succession, and so forth . The dilution of these solutions is an extreme one, such that they can be considered, from the chemical point of view, as pure water. Thus, their physico-chemical properties should not differ from those of the solvent: pure, untreated water. On the other hand, Davenas et al. [2] claimed that the property of releasing histamine, due to degranulation of human basophils interacting with antibodies of the immunoglobulin E (IgE), is kept by the anti-IgE extremely diluted solutions, that are obtained with the same procedure that we just described. In the present paper we studied calorimetrically, at 25°C, ‘extremely diluted solutions’ of sodium chloride (NaCl 3 CH and 30 CH, remember the CH number is a dilution measure) and samples of ‘treated waters’ (H2O 1 CH, 3 CH and 30 CH). This paper accounts for the systematic study of the heats of mixing of acids or bases – aqueous solutions of NaOH or HCl 0.01 mol kg–1 – with the ‘extremely diluted solutions’ or with the ‘treated waters’. We also investigated the interaction of those ‘extremely diluted solutions’ or ‘treated waters’ with solutions of various solutes (ethanol, lactose, glucose, urea, sodium, potassium or lithium chlorides), used as reagents at a finite concentration (0.01 mol kg–1). It’s known that procedures, for the calorimetric determination of the heat of dilution or mixing, are well developed [3]. The experimental results are normally treated according to the MacMillan–Mayer approach [4], modified by Friedman and Krishnan [5]. It’s worth noting, instead, that no work of this kind, concerning the study of the physico-chemical properties of this ‘anomalous solutions’, with significative results, are known in current literature. Our present contribution aims at proving that the structure of the solvent could be permanently altered by the procedure used in preparing the solutions.

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Electromagnetic Signals Are Produced by Aqueous Nanostructures Derived from Bacterial DNA Sequences

Luc MONTAGNIER1,2∗, Jamal A¨ISSA1, St´ephane FERRIS1, Jean-Luc MONTAGNIER1, Claude LAVALLEE´ 1 1(Nanectis Biotechnologies, S.A. 98 rue Albert Calmette, F78350 Jouy en Josas, France) 2(Vironix LLC, L. Montagnier 40 Central Park South, New York, NY 10019, USA)

Recevied 3 January 2009 / Revised 5 January 2009 / Accepted 6 January 2009

Abstract: A novel property of DNA is described: the capacity of some bacterial DNA sequences to induce electromagnetic waves at high aqueous dilutions. It appears to be a resonance phenomenon triggered by the ambient electromagnetic background of very low frequency waves. The genomic DNA of most pathogenic bacteria contains sequences which are able to generate such signals. This opens the way to the development of highly sensitive detection system for chronic bacterial infections in human and animal diseases.

Pathogenic microorganisms in this day of age are not only submitted to high selective pressure by the immune defenses of their hosts but also have to survive under highly active antiviral or antibiotic treatments. Not surprisingly, they have evolved in finding many ways to escape these hostile conditions, such as mutations of resistance, hypervariability of surface antigens, protective biofilms, latency inside cells and tissues. We initially observed (Montagnier and Lavallee, personal communication) that some filtration procedures aimed at sterilizing biological fluids can yield under some defined conditions the infectious microorganism which was present before the filtration step. Thus, filtration of a culture supernatant of human lymphocytes infected with Mycoplasma pirum, a microorganism of about 300 nM in size, through filters of 100 nM or 20 nM porosities, yielded apparently sterile fluid. The latter however was able to regenerate the original mycoplasma when incubated with a mycoplasma negative culture of human lymphocytes within 2 to 3 weeks. Similarly, a 20 nM filtration did not retain a minor infective fraction of HIV, the causal agent of AIDS, whose viral particles have a diameter averaging 100-120 nM. In the course of investigating the nature of such filtering infectious forms, we found another property of the filtrates, which may or may not be related to the former: their capacity to produce some electromagnetic waves of low frequency in a reproducible manner after appropriate dilutions in water. The emission of such waves is likely to represent a resonance phenomenon depending on excitation by the ambient electromagnetic noise. It is associated with the presence in the aqueous dilutions of polymeric nanostructures of defined size. The supernatant of uninfected eukaryotic cells used as controls did not exhibit this property. In this paper we provide a first characterization of the electromagnetic signals (EMS) and of their underlying nanostructures produced by some purified bacteria. In addition to M. pirum, a more classical bacterium, E. Coli, was utilized for the purpose of the analysis. The nanostructures produced by HIV will be the subject of another paper. M. pirum is a peer-shaped small bacterial cell, ressembling M. pneumoniae, which can be grown in synthetic enriched medium (SP4) (Tully et al., 1977) but also mutiplies at the surface of human T lymphocytes. The strain (Ber) used in our experiments was isolated from a T lymphocyte culture derived from the blood of an apparently healthy subject (Grau et al., 1993). The strong mycoplasma adherence to lymphocytes is mediated by a specific adhesin, whose gene had been previously cloned and sequenced by the authors (Tham et al., 1994). We used as primary source of the mycoplasma, supernatants of infected human T lymphocyte cultures or of cultures of the CEM tumor T cell line. All cell cultures were first tested for the lack of M. pirum contamination by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nested PCR, before starting the experiments. Titers of 106-107 infectious Units/ml of M. pirum were readily achieved after 5-6 days of incubation following deliberate infection of both types of cultures

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